Head and Neck Cancer

Head and Neck Cancer

Head and neck cancers are tumors that start in the squamous cells that line the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck (for example, those inside the mouth, throat, and voice box). Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck are the name for these cancers. Squamous cell carcinomas can start in the salivary glands, sinuses, muscles, or nerves in the head and neck, but these tumors are far less prevalent than squamous cell carcinomas.

Types Of Head And Neck Cancer

Causes Of Head And Neck Cancer

Symptoms Of Head And Neck Cancer

  1. A lump in the neck or a sore in the mouth or throat that does not heal and is uncomfortable, a persistent sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice are all possible symptoms of head and neck cancer. Other, less dangerous illnesses can also cause these symptoms. Any of these symptoms should be checked out by a doctor or dentist.

    Cancers of the head and neck can cause a variety of symptoms:

    • Oral cavity: A white or red spot on the gums, tongue, or mouth lining; a growth or swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become unpleasant; and unusual bleeding or discomfort in the mouth are all symptoms of the oral cavity.
    • Throat (pharynx): Pain when swallowing; persistent pain in the neck or throat; pain or ringing in the ears; or difficulty hearing.
    • Voicebox: Trouble breathing or speaking, pain when swallowing, or earache are all symptoms of the voice box (larynx).
    • Paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: Blockages in the sinuses that do not clear; chronic sinus infections that do not respond to antibiotic therapy; bleeding through the nose; recurrent headaches, edoema, or other eye issues; pain in the upper teeth; or denture troubles.
    • Salivary gland: Swelling beneath the chin or around the jawbone, numbness or paralysis of the facial muscles, or persistent pain in the face, chin, or neck are all symptoms of salivary glands.

How You Diagnosis Your Head And Neck Cancer

  • Visual assessment of the oral and nasal cavities, neck, throat, and tongue with a tiny mirror and/or illumination may be part of the physical examination. A lump on the neck, lips, gums, or cheeks may be felt by the doctor.
  • Endoscopy is the examination of internal organs using a narrow, illuminated tube called an endoscope. The type of endoscope that the doctor uses is determined by the area that needs to be inspected. A laryngoscope, for example, is introduced into the mouth to examine the larynx; an esophagoscope is inserted into the mouth to examine the oesophagus; and a nasopharyngoscope is inserted into the nose to examine the nasal cavity and nasopharynx.
  • A CT (or CAT) scan is a sequence of detailed images of areas inside the head and neck produced by a computer connected to an x-ray machine.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) creates comprehensive images of locations inside the head and neck using a powerful magnet connected to a computer.
  • PET scans use sugar that has been changed in such a way that it is absorbed by cancer cells and shows up on the scan as dark patches.
  • Tissue is removed during a biopsy. To make a diagnosis, a pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope. A biopsy is the only method to know for sure if someone has cancer.


Head And Neck Cancer Cost In India


Not all lumps in the neck point towards head and neck cancers. In most cases, these lumps could be swollen lymph nodes, which are caused due to infection or inflammation. However, if these lumps are persistent and do not go away after the inflammation is cured, you must immediately see your doctor who will be thoroughly examining these lumps before arriving at a conclusive diagnosis.


Different head and neck cancer treatments are associated with different side effects. Radiation therapy may lead to fatigue, weight loss, and pain with swallowing. Chemotherapy, on the other hand, may cause nausea, low blood counts, and changes in taste. A few side effects, like nausea, wear off as soon as the treatment ends. However, other side effects, like fatigue and discomfort with swallowing, take some time to improve.

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