Bariatric surgery, often referred to as weight-loss surgery, encompasses a variety of surgical techniques aimed at promoting weight loss by limiting food intake. Certain procedures can also restrict the absorption of nutrients. These surgeries bring about alterations in both the structure and functionality of your digestive system. The primary objective of weight-loss surgery is to aid in weight reduction and the management of obesity-related health conditions, including diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and risk factors for heart disease and stroke.
Weight loss surgery is not a universal option for all individuals, even if they are overweight or obese. Specific requirements must be met before a patient can undergo this treatment, and a physician assesses these criteria to determine the most suitable weight reduction surgery. Typically, weight loss surgery is recommended for individuals who:
Excessive weight can lead to a myriad of problems, negatively impacting self-esteem and increasing the risk of life-threatening conditions like heart attacks, sleep apnea, stroke, cancer, and hypertension.
Ultimately, it is the physician who assesses an individual’s eligibility for weight loss surgery based on specific criteria.
Weight loss surgery is a broad word that refers to not just one, but a variety of operations that can be done to any remove extra fat from an obese person.
It can be done in a number of methods, including removing a section of the stomach or rerouting the small intestine to a stomach pouch to reduce stomach size.
Weight loss surgery comes in various forms, and the selection of the most suitable procedure is determined by the patient’s overall health, the amount of weight to be shed, associated medical conditions, and the level of risks the patient is prepared to undertake. Some of the most common weight-loss surgeries include:
Sleeve Gastrectomy: This is a standard weight loss procedure that reduces the stomach’s size by approximately 75%. Consequently, the patient’s stomach capacity is reduced, leading to a feeling of fullness after consuming a small meal. In this procedure, a significant portion of the stomach is removed, and the two open ends are connected to create a sleeve, resulting in a stomach shape resembling that of a banana.
Gastric Band: Also known as lap banding, this procedure involves encircling an inflatable band around the upper portion of the patient’s stomach. This results in the formation of a pouch-like structure connected to the rest of the stomach through a narrow tube.
The band is filled with saline solution after being placed around the stomach. Adjusting the amount of saline in the band allows for the expansion or reduction of stomach size. This procedure is designed for obese patients and promotes a sensation of fullness. The band is intended for long-term use, but it can be removed if necessary.
Gastric Ballooning: In this form of weight loss surgery, an inflated silicone balloon is inserted into the stomach for a predetermined period, typically around six months. This reduces the available space in the stomach, leading to decreased food intake after the procedure. Patients encounter an early sense of fullness and consume less compared to their pre-surgery eating habits.
Gastric Bypass: Another surgical procedure involves the formation of a small stomach pouch that directly connects to the central section of the small intestine. Consequently, the stomach and its upper portion are entirely bypassed. This effectively restricts both food intake and the absorption of minerals and calories from food. Most weight loss surgeries are conducted using laparoscopy, which minimizes invasiveness. Patients experience a speedy recovery and considerably less discomfort compared to open surgery techniques.
Gastric Plication: In this procedure, specific folds are created in the stomach lining, which effectively reduces the overall size of the stomach due to these prominent folds. With less space for food, patients experience a rapid sense of fullness.
Gastric Banding: Also referred to as lap banding, this procedure involves placing an inflatable band around the upper portion of the patient’s stomach, creating a pouch-like structure that connects to the rest of the stomach via a narrow tube.
The band is filled with saline solution after it is wrapped around the stomach. Adjusting the amount of saline in the band allows for the expansion or reduction of stomach size. This procedure is designed for obese patients and promotes a sensation of fullness. The band is intended for long-term use but can be removed at any time.
Gastric Ballooning: In this form of weight loss surgery, an inflated silicone balloon is placed in the stomach for a predetermined period, typically around six months. This reduces the available space in the stomach, leading to decreased food intake by the patient. Consequently, patients experience an early sensation of fullness and consume less than they did before the surgery.
Gastric Bypass: This surgical procedure involves the creation of a small stomach pouch that directly connects to the central section of the small intestine. This bypasses both the stomach and the upper part of the stomach entirely. It effectively restricts the quantity of food consumed as well as the absorption of minerals and calories from food. Most weight loss procedures are performed laparoscopically, ensuring minimal invasion. Patients experience a swift recovery and significantly less discomfort compared to open surgery methods.
Recovery is a crucial phase, and understanding the next steps is vital. It’s essential to ensure that the patient receives full and appropriate support from family and friends. The doctor will continue to assist in developing a comprehensive recovery plan, encompassing both short-term and long-term goals, which must be diligently followed for optimal weight loss results.
As the patient gradually resumes their regular daily activities, the medical team will ensure a seamless and comfortable transition. Achieving a substantial reduction in weight and a decreased risk of diseases is contingent upon the patient’s complete recovery and unwavering commitment to their new routine.
Weight loss surgery is a quite lengthy procedure that, if performed correctly, can result in a significant weight loss. It also comes with some disadvantages. The majority of these side effects are due to the stomach band, balloon, or sleeve. Food intolerance can be caused by stomach slippage or perforation in some persons. After the procedure, some patients may experience vomiting, straining, weakness, or even sweating.
Weight loss surgery cost in India is significantly less than in UK and US including other developed countries. The table below summarizes the cost of each weight loss procedure.
Tale into consideration your present health, weight, your goals, the treatments your physician conducts, and which are covered by your insurance provider before deciding whether weight-loss surgery is ideal for you
The majority of patients are able to return to work one or two weeks after surgery. For the first week after surgery, you may experience low energy and need to work every other day or from home. It also depends on the type of employment you do, as you should avoid heavy activity while you’re recovering.
During laparoscopic bariatric surgery, small incisions are made and a small camera is used to observe the inside organs. The laparoscope is an unique equipment that is put through one of the small incisions in the belly and is attached to a tiny video camera. Gas is introduced to expand the abdomen and provide a working space, giving the surgeon a magnified view of the patient’s abdominal cavity.
Less postoperative discomfort and agony, a shorter hospital stay, and a faster recovery and return to work are all advantages of the laparoscopic approach. In addition, the chance of operational complications is decreased.
Gastric bypass surgery, both laparoscopic and open, takes roughly two hours. If the patient has undergone previous abdominal surgery or has anatomical issues that make the process more difficult, it may take longer.
The laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure takes 60 to 90 minutes, while the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy procedure takes one hour.
It is suggested that you wait 12-18 months after surgery before trying to conceive. Even when there is a minor pre-op weight loss, most women report being substantially more fertile after weight-loss surgery.
The likelihood of issues during pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes, eclampsia, macrosomia, and other complications after birthing, is reduced after the procedure.
Also, post-operation, there are fewer miscarriages and stillbirths than in obese women who did not have surgery and weight loss.
Because nutrients are not absorbed adequately in the body, malabsorption-based bariatric surgery might result in vitamin insufficiency. To avoid these deficiencies, people will need to take multivitamins for the rest of their lives.
Higher doses of some vitamins or minerals, such as iron, calcium, and vitamin D, may also be required. To maintain track of your health, it’s a good idea to undergo at least yearly blood testing.