Neuro Oncology

Neuro Oncology

What Is Brain Cancer?

Brain cancer is also known as tumors, it is an abnormal growth of brain cells. Malignant tumors can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. Benign tumors are those that do not spread or invade nearby tissue. Benign tumors are less dangerous than malignant tumors, but they can cause problems in the brain by pressing on nearby tissue.Primary brain tumors are those that develop from brain cells. Gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are the most common primary brain tumors (medulloblastomas). Glioblastomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas are all types of gliomas.

Secondary or metastatic brain tumors spread to the brain from other tumors.A brain tumor’s symptoms are usually related to its location rather than its size. When a tumor destroys or compresses normal brain tissue, symptoms develop.Either the tissues surrounding the tumor swell or the tumor disrupts the normal flow of fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

Symptoms Of Brain Cancer

Brain cancer symptoms appear gradually, and the type of symptoms observed are determined by the exact location and size of the tumor in the brain. The following are the symptoms of brain cancer:

  • Changes in behavior and emotions
  • Speech and judgment impairment
  • Smell impairment Lack of recognition
  • Diminished mental capacity
  • Optical nerve inflammation
  • Memory lapses
  • One side of the body paralysis
  • Seizures
  • Disorders of space
  • Speaking and swallowing difficulties
  • One side of the face has muscle weakness.
  • Disjointed gait
  • Headache, particularly in the morning
  • Hearing impairment
  • Vomiting
  • Prolonged sleepiness (somnolence)
  • Visual impairment

Risk Factor/ Causes Of Brain Cancer

Extensive research is being conducted to identify the precise cause of brain tumors. However, the causes of brain tumors are not well understood.

Tumors develop as a result of uncontrolled cellular multiplication. This is the result of a change or mutation in our DNA. This mutation affects genes that control cell division and cause cells to die at the appropriate time, causing cells to grow uncontrollably and result in brain tumors.

Various risk factors can raise your chances of developing a brain tumor. These are some examples:

Symptoms Of Cancer

General signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to cancer include:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Persistent cough
  3. Difficulty swallowing
  4. Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  5. Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
  6. Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
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  2. Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
  3. Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
  4. Changes in the skin, such as yellowing, darkening, or redness, sores that will not heal, or changes to existing mole

Causes Of Cancer

Cancer is not caused by a single cause; the interaction of many factors together causes cancer. It is considered a complex group of diseases. Most cancers are related to environmental, lifestyle, or behavioural exposures. Cancer is not contagious in humans, though it can be caused by oncoviruses and cancer bacteria.

Certain risk factors are known to increase the chance of cancer:

What Prevention Can Be Done To Cure Cancer?

Cancer prevention encompasses proactive measures aimed at reducing the risk of developing cancer. It’s noteworthy that the majority of cancer cases are attributed to environmental factors, and many of these influences are within our control through lifestyle choices. Consequently, cancer is largely preventable. Environmental factors contribute to approximately 70% to 90% of common cancers, rendering them potentially avoidable.

Some well-recognized avoidable risk factors for cancer include tobacco use, excess weight or obesity, unhealthy dietary habits, lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption, exposure to sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to air pollution. Addressing these risk factors could prevent over 30% of cancer-related deaths.


It’s important to acknowledge that poverty can indirectly contribute to cancer risk due to limited access to healthcare and resources for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

However, it’s crucial to recognize that some environmental factors, such as naturally occurring background radiation and cancers related to hereditary genetic abnormalities, are beyond personal control and cannot be mitigated through individual actions.

How To Diagnosis Cancer?

Depending upon the type of cancer different ways can be used to diagnose cancer:

  1. X-Ray
  2. Bone scan
  3. Lab tests
  4. Ultrasound
  5. Nuclear scan
  1. Imaging tests
  2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  3. CT (Computerised Tomography) Scans
  4. PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan
    1. Biopsy (with needle, endoscopy, or surgery)

Treatment Options For Cancer

The type of cancer, its stage, whether cancer has spread, and your overall health all influence treatment options. The goal of treatment is to eliminate as many malignant cells as possible while minimizing damage to neighboring healthy cells. This is made feasible by technological advancements.



The fluid inside your bones called bone marrow produces blood cells from blood stem cells. A bone marrow transplant, commonly known as a stem cell transplant, can employ either your own or a donor’s bone marrow stem cells.


Cancer Treatment Cost In India

Cancer treatment in India is a very cost-effective option. The top hospitals offer affordable medical care cost packages that cover several services during the treatment. The cancer treatment cost in India start approx USD 500 (INR 38,000) to USD 8000 (INR 6,11,000). The cost of cancer treatment in India may vary, but it usually ranges:
Treatment Cost
Chemotherapy USD 500–1000 Approx./ Month
Immunotherapy USD 8500
Breast cancer surgery USD 2000 – 4000
Prostate cancer treatment USD 6000 – 8000
Breast conservation surgery USD 3000 – 4000
Transarterial radioembolization or TARE USD 30,000
Transarterial chemoembolization or TACE (Trans Arterial chemoembolization) USD 7000 – 8000

The type of cancer, its stage, whether cancer has spread, and your overall health all influence treatment options. The goal of treatment is to eliminate as many malignant cells as possible while minimizing damage to neighboring healthy cells. This is made feasible by technological advancements.



Cancer refers to the unchecked proliferation of anomalous cells within a specific region of the body, potentially capable of metastasizing to other regions throughout the human body.

Cancer not only poses a significant threat to a person’s physical health but also can lead to profound psychological and financial challenges in the patient’s life.

While cancer used to be associated with dire consequences, today, thanks to advancements in healthcare, the prognosis and life expectancy for cancer patients have significantly improved, offering them a more optimistic outlook.

Metastasis denotes the spread of cancer (tumor cells) to other parts of the human body, where they can infiltrate and potentially lead to severe and life-threatening consequences.

Numeric staging indicators are often added to each letter in cancer staging to convey the size and extent of the primary tumor as well as the degree of cancer spread. A higher number typically signifies a larger tumor or a more extensive spread of the disease.

40 percent of cancer Brought on by tobacco or pan masala particularly the oral and lung cancer.

  • Approximately 10 percent could be due to hereditary causes for example breast and ovarian cancer.
  • Approximately 15 percent could be due to obesity such as breast, uterus, etc.
  • 5 percent may be dietary and food preservation including stomach cancer.
  • Approximately 30% of cancer Don’t Have Any unknown triggers such as pancreatic cancer.

Oncologist is specialized doctors for the treatment of cancer, maybe a surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, or medical oncologist.


Any persistent bulge or swelling

  • Sudden bleeding
  • Like coughing blood
  • Bleeding from gut/pee
  • Encourages weight loss
  • Persistent cough Especially If You’re a smoker
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Changes in your voice
  • Mouth or tongue ulcer for over 3 weeks
  • New mole or modifications from an existing mole

About two-thirds of that cancer is associated with lifestyle and can be averted

  • Obesity is among the largest risk factor for cancer.
  • By preventing tobacco use around 30 percent of oral and lung cancer cases could be prevented
  • Normal screening also helps notably in prostate cancer for guys and cervical and breast cancer cases in guys.

Following the individual presents with symptoms that are imagining, a Battery of tests and analyses are performed to confirm the diagnosis of malignancy

  • Biopsy
  • Endoscopy
  • Detection and therapy help?
  • It is essential to Be aware of symptoms and diagnose it. First disease stages as early detection and treatment may make a powerful effect on the disease prognosis in fact at many times can be life-threatening or cause fewer complications, since also lessens the healthcare expenses and clinical intervention.

Metastasis denotes the spread of cancer (tumor cells) to other parts of the human body, where they can infiltrate and potentially lead to severe and life-threatening consequences.

The primary treatments for cancer typically include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves the use of drugs or chemical agents to target and kill cancer cells.

2. Surgery: Surgical procedures are used to physically remove cancerous tissue or tumors from the body.

3. Radiation therapy: High-energy X-rays or other radiation sources are employed to target and destroy cancer cells.

Treatment plans for cancer can vary widely depending on the type and stage of cancer, as well as individual patient factors. In many cases, a combination of these treatments may be used to effectively combat the disease. The choice of treatment is determined by a thorough evaluation of the specific cancer diagnosis and its characteristics.

Indeed, chemotherapy is a medical treatment approach that employs potent chemicals or drugs to target and destroy rapidly dividing cells within the body. This is particularly effective in targeting cancer cells, which tend to proliferate quickly. However, chemotherapy can also affect healthy cells that divide rapidly, leading to various side effects, which is why it is carefully administered and monitored by healthcare professionals.

Chemotherapy drugs can be administered through various methods, including:

1. Chemotherapy infusions: These are typically delivered intravenously (IV) into a vein, allowing the drugs to circulate throughout the body.

2. Chemotherapy pills: Some chemotherapy drugs are available in oral form, in the form of pills or capsules, which can be taken by mouth.

3. Chemotherapy shots: Injections of chemotherapy drugs can be administered into muscles or under the skin.

4. Chemotherapy lotions: In some cases, topical chemotherapy creams or lotions are used for skin cancers.

5. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy: This involves the delivery of chemotherapy drugs directly into the abdominal cavity to treat cancers in that area.

6. Intrathecal chemotherapy: Chemotherapy can also be administered directly into the cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal cord and brain for certain types of cancer.

The choice of administration method depends on the type of cancer, its location, and the specific chemotherapy drugs being used. Some chemotherapy may indeed be given directly to the cancerous site, such as intraperitoneal chemotherapy for abdominal cancers.

The ability to work during cancer treatment can depend on several factors, including:

1. The type of treatment you’re receiving: Some cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can cause significant side effects that may affect your ability to work. The severity of these side effects varies among individuals and depends on the specific treatment regimen.

2. Your general health: Your overall health and physical condition can influence your ability to continue working during cancer treatment. If you are otherwise healthy and in good shape, you may have a better chance of maintaining your work activities.

3. The type of work you do: The nature of your job plays a crucial role. If your job involves physical labor or requires you to be on your feet for extended periods, you may find it more challenging to work during treatment compared to a desk job that allows for flexibility.

4. How you feel during treatment: Cancer treatment can cause fatigue, nausea, pain, and other side effects. How you feel on a day-to-day basis during treatment can impact your ability to work. Some days you may feel well enough to work, while on others, you may need to rest.

Doctors and healthcare professionals will consider these factors when advising you on whether it’s safe and feasible for you to continue working during cancer treatment. In some cases, adjustments to your work schedule or duties may be recommended to accommodate your treatment and recovery needs. It’s important to communicate openly with your healthcare team and your employer to make appropriate arrangements and prioritize your health during this challenging time.

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