Modulated Radiation Therapy

Modulated Radiation Therapy

What Is Stereotactic Radiosurgery?

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a highly precise and non-invasive form of radiation therapy that delivers a concentrated, high dose of radiation to a brain tumor, sparing nearby healthy tissue from damage. This specialized treatment involves targeting abnormal areas with radiation beams originating from multiple angles.

To ensure accuracy, the patient’s head is securely immobilized using a specialized device during the procedure, allowing for precise alignment of the radiation beams. Stereotactic radiosurgery is particularly valuable for treating lesions and tumors that may be inoperable through conventional surgery.

Furthermore, it is employed as a post-operative treatment strategy for eradicating or obliterating abnormal blood vessels or tumor tissue in cases of congenital arteriovenous malformations, offering a non-surgical alternative for such conditions.

Types Of Blood Cancer

This type involves one or more stereotactic radiation treatments along with the body but excluding the spine or brain. SBRT is used for treating:

  • Pediatric Cancers
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Head and Neck Cancers
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer

Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) :

SRS is primarily used for treating spinal and brain cancers.

Equipments Used For Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Linear Accelerator (LINAC):

High energy x-ray electrons or photons are delivered by this machine in curving paths surrounding the head of a patient. Fractioned stereotactic radiotherapy is the procedure where radiosurgery uses LINAC for treating large tumors either in one session or multiple sessions.

Gamma Knife:

201 highly focused gamma rays are used. These gamma rays are delivered with great accuracy and are used for treating small as well as medium size lesions.

Procedure Of Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Stereotactic Radiosurgery by using Linear Accelerator (LINAC) :

This procedure shares similarities with the Gamma Knife procedure and can be categorized into four distinct phases:

1. Imaging: The process begins with imaging to precisely locate the target area for treatment.

2. Computerized Dose Planning: A computer-aided plan is developed to determine the appropriate radiation dosage for the treatment.

3. Head Frame Placement: A specialized head frame is affixed to the patient to ensure stability during the procedure.

4. Radiation Delivery: Radiation beams are administered from various angles, typically using a gantry that rotates around the patient. This approach allows for the effective treatment of larger tumors with less need for repositioning, resulting in more uniform delivery of the radiation through a larger X-ray beam.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery Using The Gamma Knife: Four Phases Are Involved In This Procedure –

The procedure involves several key phases:

Placement of the Head Frame:
– Lightweight, box-shaped aluminum head frame with pins secures to the patient’s skull.
– The pins immobilize the skull, ensuring no movement during treatment.
– The head frame is essential for accurately focusing gamma rays on the specific treatment site.

Imaging of the Tumor Location:
– Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning is performed to precisely locate the tumor in relation to the head frame.

Computerized Dose Planning:
– A computer-aided treatment plan is generated to determine the appropriate radiation dosage for targeting the tumor.

Radiation Delivery:
– Radiation beams are precisely directed to the specific brain area.
– These beams enter through openings in the helmet attached to the head frame to target the precise brain site.
– The treatment begins, and the patient can communicate with the physician via a microphone within the helmet.
– A camera integrated into the helmet enables the physician to monitor the patient during the procedure.
– A distinct click and chime signal the secure locking of the helmet to the radiation source.
– The entire procedure typically lasts about 2 to 4 hours.
– The head frame is removed upon the procedure’s completion.

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